Leider schon ausverkauft. Home Border-Regional Economics. Keine Kommentare vorhanden Jetzt ersten Kommentar schreiben! Bewerten Sie jetzt diesen Artikel. Kommentar verfassen. This research work is to commemorate all Guos' ancestor, who guarded the border for his Majesty dutifully, and who is the foremost supporter in my academic career.
For the past decades, economists and geographers from both developed and developing Mehr zum Inhalt Video Inhaltsverzeichnis. Produkt empfehlen. Sprache: Englisch. Auf meinen Merkzettel. Versandkostenfrei Bestellungen mit diesem Artikel sind versandkostenfrei! The distribution of participation in partnerships at each level is also an important indicator of how local authorities perceive their political environment and value scales of engagement.
Table 1. Cross-border initiatives with direct or indirect participation by the cities of Detroit and Windsor and the surrounding metropolitan region. Interlocal bi-lateral. International led by senior levels of government. Mutual aid agreements, i.
Joint events, i. Red Bull Air Race. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative. Detroit River International Crossing Study. Detroit-Windsor Tunnel Corporation.
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Detroit River Tunnel Partnership. University exchange agreements. Conventions of consultation.
Council of Great Lakes Governors. Ontario-Michigan Border Transportation Partnership.
Great Lakes Information Partnership. This list includes those partnerships that were most frequently mentioned instances of intermunicipal cooperation in local print news media during that time period and in interviews with stakeholders on either side of the border in the area of regional economic development. Interlocal, or bi-lateral partnerships are those in which local authorities in Windsor and Detroit are the principal participants and initiators.
Metropolitan partnerships are those that include local actors beyond the two central municipalities and are led by organizations at a regional scale — for instance, the Detroit Regional Chamber of Commerce.http://co.organiccrap.com/171707.php
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues
International partnerships address issues of relevance to local authorities but are led by senior levels of government. The distribution of partnerships in this table suggests that multilateral cross-border cooperation in the Detroit-Windsor region is relatively weak because of both the small number of partnerships initiated by local actors and the issue areas that they target. Bi-lateral interlocal partnerships, while numerous for instance, multiple mutual aid agreements exist , have low levels of institutional integration.
Joint events on the Detroit River, such as the Red Bull Air Race, required coordination between local authorities, but no formal agreements or joint management.
An agreement between universities located in Detroit and Windsor to treat students from the metropolitan region as local residents and to permit students to take courses at both institutions requires administrative coordination, but little political involvement. There are also conventions that actors on either side of the border consult one another on issues of mutual concern.
For instance, local water utilities on either side of the river consult on projects and quality issues. However, neither their governance nor service delivery is integrated across the international boundary. The Detroit-Windsor Tunnel Corporation is the most integrated instance of interlocal cooperation to manage the tunnel river crossing between the two cities.
Even this corporation is established as a partnership, rather a single joint entity, between tunnel corporations on either side of the border 4. This reluctance to create a single joint corporation is emblematic of cross-border intermunicipal relationships in the region. For instance, TranslinkeD is a regional transportation and logistics strategy centered primarily on Detroit. As an initiative of the Detroit Regional Chamber of Commerce it recognizes the importance of the cities and infrastructure directly across the Canadian border and has included Canadian officials in their discussions.
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Lawrence Cities Initiative are both organizations that include local authorities on both sides of the border among their participants. This initiative was led by the Detroit Regional Chamber of Commerce and is a forum for local government and industry concerned with the implications of tightening security on regional cross-border mobility. However, all of these operate at a scale much larger than the metropolitan region, include few local participants aside from representatives from the large central cities, or were initiated from outside of the region.
International partnerships revolve around three main issue areas: trade, environmental issues related to the Great Lakes and boundary rivers, and the border crossing. Local authorities in the Detroit-Windsor region are formal participants in some of these initiatives and informally included in others. These international partnerships, typically led by state, provincial or federal levels of government via the relevant ministries and departments all address topics of great concern to municipalities in the region but the policy process is very much driven by international, rather than regional, interests.
What accounts for this weakness of cooperative ties between local authorities across the border in this region? The following section turns to theories of cross-border dynamics to structure an investigation into this question. The intention of this study is to highlight as comprehensively as possible this collection of factors and to explore how they have affected intermunicipal relationships in the Detroit-Windsor region. Rather than presenting a coherent theoretical framework which predicts the effect of and interaction between independent variables in the production of cross-border relationships, this section merely categorizes the variables and describes their expected effects as described elsewhere in the literature.
It functions as both a review of the relevant literature on cross-border integration and a typology of variables. In that sense these variables together provide an analytical framework for analysis of the conditions that are shaping cross-border relations in the Detroit-Windsor region. These variables can be broadly classified as factors that relate to local contexts, functional interdependencies, civic networks and asymmetries.
Table 2 summarizes these categories and highlights their expected impact on cross-border relationships. Table 2. Variable Type.
Significance to Cross-Border Relationships. The size, scale, location, position relative to the border, and fragmentation of local authorities can determine the scope of potential partners; balances of power and centers of gravity; the significance of the region to senior levels of government; and number of players. Intergovernmental Context. The attitudes and actions of senior levels of government can influence the propensity of local actors to cooperate.
Cooperation may be more likely where: relationships between senior levels of government across the border are harmonious; senior levels empower local authorities; or senior levels incentivize and support regional cross-border institutional integration. Functional Interdependencies.
Economics and Interests. Economic linkages and functional integration can create common interests and incentives for cooperation. Regions are linked by: commuting patterns; labor markets; market forces and trade flows; regional innovation systems and clusters; and common resources and infrastructure. Culture and Community. A common sense of belonging; of shared norms and a sense of community can ease cooperation based on: linguistic, ethnic or religious similarities; similar political cultures; specific regional identities; and shared experiences and values.
Civic Networks. Civic Capital. Local networks, leadership and policy communities organized at the regional scale are important agents of cross-border coordination — they recognize the value of and initiate connections. Symmetries and Asymmetries. Congruence of local governments and local conditions can increase commonality of interests and reduce friction in cooperation. Some important areas of symmetry are in: institutional and political processes; development history, industrialization and sectoral development; standards of living and social conditions; access to resources; and autonomy and power.
This summary vastly simplifies the wide range of contextual determinants into two broad sub-categories: geographical preconditions and intergovernmental context. Generally speaking, local actors have a limited ability to influence the actions of senior levels of government or regional spatial configurations. Therefore, contextual variables can provide a relatively stable basis for comparison of institutional integration. Regions can be differentiated by the relative size of their municipalities, the location and distribution of localities relative to the border, the positioning of economic and political centers of gravity relative to other municipalities and the border, and the fragmentation of local authorities.
These factors structure the range of potential partners, the number of potential players in cross-border partnerships, general balances of power and centers of political influence, and can affect the relative importance of the metropolitan region for senior levels of government. The spatial proximity of metropolitan cores and the distribution of population relative to the border can influence the likelihood of regional cooperation.
In regions with larger numbers of potential participants in cross-border cooperation the more difficult it may be to establish these relationships Heddebaut , Olson Geography is rarely alone determinative of institutional integration. Rather it shapes the context within which actors formulate strategies and make decisions about participating in cross-border relationships.
Cross-border partnerships and institutional integration between local governments may be more likely where the relationships between senior levels of government on either side of the border are harmonious and productive. Serious international conflict in a regional setting can be a serious barrier to the development of long-term transboundary relationships based on trust and a perception of mutual interest Scott et al.
More broadly, the presence of international organizations and international institutions can influence the development of cross-border linkages Brunet-Jailly , Haas The relationship between local and senior levels of government shapes the autonomy of local actors to establish cross-border relationships.
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Of course, where senior levels of government directly and actively encourage cross-border regional partnerships these are more likely to form and stimulate institutional integration. Cross-border partnerships are more likely to emerge in regions characterized by significant functional interdependence.