«Reawakening Pride Once Lost»: Indigeneity and European Folk Metal
Thes e discursive moments should not, however, be taken as my own underlying assumptions. The work that will be carried out here is an examination of the ways in which NAIITS theologians and faculty members are emphasizing differences in their attempts to open up moments of tension between culture and religion, allowing them to challenge the theological assumption that Western culture and orthodox worship are synonymous. From this position, they have developed theologically oriented tools enabling d irect challenges to the mainstream Evangelical network. Through the use of forms of traditional NAIITS theologians are attempting to reprogram the dominant evangelical network.
Thus, the critique of Western ontologies or, rather, the contents of the NAIITS counter network is carried out th rough internet communication technologies and ritualizations 10 I am culling the terms which appears in his oft cited monograph The Practice of Everyday Life PAGE 28 28 symposia and conferences wherein the very legitimizing structures Western academic modes of kno wledge production that afford NAIITS legitimacy are rendered spatially and temporally contingent Finally through cultural inversions, NAIITS theologians render the dominant Evangelical institutional apparatus and population as the new mission field in n eed of radical social and cultural reformation to bring it into further alignment with Biblical Indigeneity.
A Brief Word on Methods This first year of this pro ject consisted of mostly source allocation and reading. In addition, I acquired each of their publications articles and books. I spent a great deal of time as a participant observer, listening to paper presentations, taking part in th e schedule of activities, and interacting with and getting to know speakers and fellow attendees.
My role as an ethnographer was made abundantly clear from the beginning.
What is more, I was honest with NAIITS theologians and other attendees concerning m y 11 All of the sources I am mentioning here can be found listed in the bibliography. PAGE 29 29 own personal theologians and attendees were very gracious, willing to engage in conversation s about religion in general, and Christendom, more specifically, with a non believer. My ability to relate to many of them was in our mutual desires to see Native Evangelicals and indigenous peoples the world over further empowered as institutionally re cognized theologians and consequently to see the dominant Evangelical network move further away from its imperialistic and colonial heritage, perhaps resulting in a significant shift to embrace a more varied expression of religiosity.
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Therefore, I settled on conducting life history interviews with as many of the founding members and current board members as possible. This proved more difficult than I had originall y imagined, however, as many of the NAIITS theologians are very busy frequently traveling around for speaking engagements and international work usually among other indigenous communities. My preference for life history interviews stems from other field work experiences where directed, question driven interviews yielded choppy information.
Life history interviews, on the other hand, allow for more of an unstructured conversation it is more inter subjective , yielding a wealth of information that emerges as the interviewee details her personal narrative.
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As readers will witness in Chapter 5, the narratives are rich. I PAGE 30 30 would argue, furthermore, that the patterns that emerge within the discourse between interviewees are more organic because the interviewer i s not directing the narrative through questioning. In addition to the literature review, participant observation, and series of interviews, I conducted a digital ethnography, taking stock of the ways in which NAIITS theologians constructed identity throug h ICTs Internet Communication technologies.
This work was a continuation of the exploratory endeavors that led to the project initially. Program descriptions, descriptions of i nstitutional affiliations, and imagery became the objects under scrutiny in this portion of the project. All of the above methods allowed me to amass a wealth of information. In sum, then, this project is an interdisciplinary project, consisting of a varie ty of ethnographic strategies.
The result is, I hope, an in depth and illustrative analysis of NAIITS that will lead to their further recognition as a program of theological study and even perhaps additional ethnographic work by other scholars in the years that follow. Emerging Trends in t he Study o f Global and World Christianity Since the s the academy has witnessed a major shift in the way that we understand Christianity. Once considered a monolithic reflection of Europe and the burgeoning United St ates everywhere, Christianity is now understood more precisely as a polyvocal, multi situated tradition whose center of influence is undergoing radical misleading.
It narrative dominated by events, personalities, organizations, money, and cultural PAGE 31 31 expectations in Europe and North America and then surrounded by a fringe of miscellaneous mis 12 Spurred by emerging trends in immigration studies and globalization, this work reimagined m issionary Christianity and took more seriously the transnational and global orientation of the Chris tian worldview itself.
Empire, Ian Tyrell examines the global aspirations of Protesta nt mainly evangelical missionaries in the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These globally minded evangelists s uch as William T.
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Stead, would be led by the United States and its burgeoning exports market. This web global in its aspirations and highly dependent on new technologies of international communicatio , These included groups suc ole New School theology which promoted good works, the Leitch sisters joined the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Affairs in and boarded a boat to Ceylon modern day Sri Lanka.
They remain there for seven years until when funding for their missionary efforts becomes increasingly difficult to procure. During their stint, Tyrell explains, the sisters act as conduits for the establishment of a variety of transnational network connections between the U. The Christian Endeavor movement, for example, utilizes the work done by the Leitch sisters as a foundation for involvement abroad. After their return to the Uni ted States, their influence in Ceylon did not end, promote temperance and Protestant ideals to Tamils overseas Tyrell, PAGE 32 32 that the local an d global level through dense transnational networks of churches and the strategic use of mass media 14 Since the early s, the narrative has begun to change dramatically once again, paying far more attention to the local responses to missionary endeavor s, contextualized or indigenized forms of Christian worship, and the subsequent reorientation of the Colonial turn has facilitated a refocus on alternate voices and positionalities, especially as it relates to the production of Chri stian knowledge, belief, and practice emerging out of local often indigenous communities In his now oft cited monographs i.
PAGE 33 33 twentieth century as a Western, and indeed the Western religion; it ended the century as a non Western religion, on track to beco 16 In perhaps his most well known work, Whose Religion is Christianity? World Christianity, on the other hand, should begin with the assumption that that which it studies is an outgrowth of a local community couched in Christian terms and is, therefore, worthy of co nsideration on its own merits.
These, he argues, are indigenized forms of Christianity with their own social and cultural coherences. In a later piece, Disciple of All Nations: Pillars of World Christianity Sanneh sets out to formulate continuities betwe en the diverse range of Christian expressions worldwide. Referring to these trends, locatable in successive historical patterns, as the ground developments with the typical Euro centric understandings of Chris tianity.
He highlights the missionary pillar the 16 cholarship in Africa in the Twenty Transformation Vol. Eerdmans Publishing Company, , p. PAGE 34 34 tendency to take on l ocal customs while competing with other universally oriented colonial endeavors, leading to drowning out of alternative voices , the primal pillar to want to return to primitive forms of Christian worship , and the culminates in the development of ubiquitous c ounter hegemonic Christian expre ssions.
In time there emerged a vigorous new wave of Christian renewal trailing 18 Other authors have offered alternative theories as it relates to overall trends in World Christianities. He argues, from the perspective of an Americanist, that the form and function of American Christian religiosity is a reflection of broader, global Christian trends.
He suggests that a distinct form of Christianity formed in the United States during the nineteenth century, which was more Biblically oriented, more pragmatic, geared more to entrepreneurs rather than aristocratic elites, much more voluntary, aligned with the middle class, and in line with free 18 Lamin Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations: Pillars of World Christianity Oxford: Oxf ord University Press, , PAGE 35 35 19 Noll h esitantly admits that the Ultimately, however, he downplays the narrative of power, suggesting instead that it was the uniquely American, ultra democratic disposition and how that disposition became a fundamental part of the American Christian religiosity that now permeates all parts of the world.
In Clouds of Witnesses: Christian Voi ces from Africa and Asia Noll and Carolyn Nystrom employ an ethnographic method examining extensively the theological trends emerging among a handful of Afric an and Asian Christians.
They touch upon several regions, being careful not to paint with wide b rushes; these regions include Southern Africa, West Africa, East Africa, India, Korea, and China. They argue that becoming conversant with these voices is crucial for Christians in America because, as i t stands at the opening of the twenty f there are far more active church participants in Africa than in Europe; a strong majority of the adherents to major denominational families like Pentecostals, Anglicans, and Catholics live outside of North America and Europe; more missionaries are being se nt out from places like South Korea, Brazil, or Nigeria than from any European country; and it is not beyond the realm of possibility that within a few more years churchgoers in China may outnumber churchgoers in the 19 Mark Noll, The New Shape of World Christianity: How American Experience Reflects Global Faith Downers Grove, Il: Intervarsity Press, , p.
PAGE 36 36 20 The book is overtly Evangelical as the authors express a wealth of content, however, make s it an invaluable source for students of the subfield of World Christianity. An even l ater development, building upon the historiographical shifts mentioned above, emerges from questions concerning the fundamental building blocks of the field informed the assumed that its objects of study are somehow frozen in time, thus reinforcing the dichotomy between modern a nd pre questions have opened up new trajectories in the field.
Among these new avenues of inquiry, according to a particular group of scholars, is the anthropology of Christianity. Prior to this sub degree of cult ural alterity that has until quite recently been definitional of an apt disciplinary object Bialecki, Haynes, and Robbins, In other words, because Christianity was so familiar to them, anthropologists were naturally drawn away from it, prefer The issue of alterity is one of utmost importance in this case.
As Keane and Robbins help us to recall, the social sciences anthropology, sociology, etc emerged out of a thoroughly Christian episteme. Nineteenth century social scientists were faced, then, with the difficult task of constructing a secular science of culture using the building 20 Mark Noll and Carolyn Nystrom, Clouds of Witnesses: Christian Voices from Africa and Asia Downers Grove, Il: Intervarsity Press, , p.
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PAGE 37 37 blocks of the preceding models. Keane describes this process wit h some added precision. The reli gious preoccupations of Durkheim, Freud, and Weber are self evident; but one might recall as well the theological roots of Hegel and the young Marx. In the twentieth century, these repressed origins continue to haunt social science and cultural studies, an d their kin in critical and humanistic theory. This haunting is evident in their core concerns with and ways of conceptualizing the self, objectification, agency, authority, power, and materialism 21 The emergence of t he social sciences, which was concomi tant to the process of secularization, entailed the devaluation of Christianity, therefore, as something all too familiar and part of our own pre modernity.
This c ombined with the methodological primitivism which feverishly sought to locate remnants of the and cultural phenomena around the world it is no wonder why an Anthropology of Christianity has developed at such a glacial pace in the academy. The work of scholars situated within this now vibrant sub field has challenged a few of the long established assumptions concerning Christianity and conversion.
Chief among these was the assumption that for many of the converted populations around the colonized world 21 The Anthrop ology of Christianity ed. The work of NAIITS is, arguably, a theological cousin to the secular academic discussion involving PAGE 38 38 Christianity functioned merely as window 23 Robbins calls this the theo ry 24 However, as Robbins has pointed out in his study of the Urapmi n in Papua New Guinea, there is something much more complex going on than the mere nature spirits; however, God became the primary figure of religious reverence while th e nature spirits were imagined to be the harbingers of sickness and death.
What is more, spirits were mostly supplanted by Christian ones. PAGE 39 39 manifestations of Christianity around the globe. The current study builds upon the research agenda outlined above. As a case study focused on a group of Native Evangelical theologians ope rating primarily in Canada and the United States with branches in places like the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and parts of Latin America, it s aim is to illumine a particular manifestation of this new era of Christendom.
More specifically, it exami nes the with its shift to the global south, yet continues to amass support and achieve legitimacy amongst evangelical institutions situated in the U. NAIITS, in other words, is working from within the Euro American context yet embraces and attempts to further the sea change in Christian centers of gravity. Finally, I have tried my best understanding that I have likely stumbled along the way to take the posit ion so eloquently laid out by Joanna Brooks, who lauded what in the 70s and 80s and the socio historical turn in the 90s, she contends, scholars have been empowered to r life.
See, for Native and Christian Native Americans, Christianity and the Reshaping of the American Religious Landscape and Aparecida Vila Native Christians , PAGE 40 40 exegesis, 28 Doing so allows the researcher to take religious dis c ourse and practice seriously as a lways and everywhere a political endeavor, not as something somehow elevated from the nitty gritty of everyday life. This further enables sc holars to, as accurately as possible, record and describe manifestations of Christian belief and practice in context, as contingent and emergent forms of social, cultural, and political discourse aimed at particular social, cultural, and political goals.
Toward a Scrutiny o f Terms E vangelicalism Throughout this case study I will make repeated reference to Evangelicalism, especially as I refer to Native Evangelicali sm. As a category of religious a nd more specifically Christian belief and practice e vangelicalism has been and continues to be a contested category What is Evangelicalism? Is it a denomination with a developed doctrinal tradition? Or, is it more of a move ment that permeates inter denominationalism?
Who counts as Evangelical? What do evan gelicals believe? How is their form of Christianity distinct from other forms? Thus, the term requires definition in an effort toward clarity and conceptual precision. It was the intensification of revivalism, spurred by movements both in Europe and the Northern Colonies that led to an influx of evangelical. The Anglican influence in the Southern Colonies was long las ting requiring no claim to a conversion experience or adherence to biblical dogmatism. For these and other reasons, not least of which was patriarchy and the institution of slavery, evangelicalism was originally met with suspicion and distrust among Southern Colonists.
During the mid eighteenth century, however, Scotch Irish Presbyterians and German pietists Moravians, Dunkers, Mennonites, and Schwenkfelders among them , preachers from the Northern Colonies, and missionaries from Europe flooded the Southern colonies, bringing with them the religiosity commonly associated with was essent ial to salvation and the most militant among them, the Baptists and evangelical worldview.
Evangelical missions to the South became more accepting of the Southern aristocracy, took on Southern patriarchal patterns that mirrored the rigidity of the Anglican model, yielded to the racial hierarchies necessary for the persistence of the institution of slavery and Indian disenfranchisement. Perhaps the most widely known and accepted summation of overview Evangelicalism in Modern Britai n He detail as follows: conversionism the belief that lives need to be ch anged; activism the expression of the gospel in effort; biblicism a particular regard for the Bible; and what may be regarded as crucicentrism a stress on the sacrifice of Christ on the Cross.
Definition is rendered impossible, some scholars contend, 31 Christine Heyrman, Southern Cross PAGE 43 43 theological polemic. Difficulty in defining evangelicalism is, additionally, a consequence of its emergence across denominational boundaries. Protestants of all types including Methodists, Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Pentecostals identify themselves.
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Donald Dayt on, as Sweeney makes clear suggest ed that the and, at worst, utterly destructive. Because so called evangelicals are so rarely in agreement over theological or politica l matters, detractors argue, the category of it have obscured reality due to racial, cultural, class, and theological biases. While evangelicalism has typically been asso ciated with the beliefs and practices of figures such as Jonathan Edwards, John Wesley, George Whitefield, and the others the reality beliefs seldom conform to a s 34 Dayton, thus, goes as far as to urge evangelicals to cease their continued usage of the term.
Still others argue that etic analyses should not trump emic sentiments.