Decommissioning the Brent Delta topside Able Ports UK. This essay is part of the Volumetric Sovereignty forum. Descending through 75m of the North Sea to subsea formations m below the seafloor and rising around m above the 30m extreme wave threshold, Ekofisk City is a production hub and center of field operations for this extreme south-eastern corner of the Norwegian continental shelf Kvendseth, Schematic diagram of the Greater Ekofisk area ConocoPhillips. At its height, this vast machine represented the greatest concentration of infrastructure on the North Sea, comprising 8 oil-and gas-fields, 32 platforms, 2 flare stacks, and an oil storage tank the size of a city block Trotter, Ekofisk City was constructed for the purpose of extracting petroleum- the driving force of our contemporary societies and perhaps the most characteristic viscous material of our time.
Fluids with a naturally high viscosity are frequently valuable oil , precious honey or essential to life blood. Viscosity is inherently relational, depending not only on the composition of the fluid but also on temperature and environment. At increased temperatures, solid gold, steel or sand become viscous fluids and can be poured into molds to take on new solid shapes.
In this way viscosity disrupts binary assumptions such as the boundary between solid and liquid Barry To discuss the volumetric sovereignty of viscosity—the laws and principles by which it is shaped and the spaces produced by interactions with viscous materials—we argue that it is necessary to consider both its physical and metaphorical properties.
Spaces that resist binary assumptions are frequently transitional or intermediary. At the littoral zones of intersection between land and sea, a viscous space of rich exchange exists where terrestrial and marine ecosystems intertwine, and land- and seaborne urban systems converge. These are also challenging places for planning and design, since viscosity eludes constant states and formats but is volumetric and requires space to maneuver.
Planners have not always ceded space to viscous processes, rather have prioritized the binaries of fixity or flow, and in doing so have negated the inherent volumetric sovereignty of viscosity. On the other hand, principles of fluid dynamics — the flow of liquids and gases — steer innumerable urban services and processes.
But traditions have seeped into our contemporary behaviors, laws, and thinking, effectively creating viscous governmental structures and policies despite the pressure to flow. Hence, viscosity is all around us but seldom discussed. Petroleum is a thick and coveted liquid which does not easily flow and which drives much institutional viscosity. Despite its ubiquity in industrialized northern Europe, its volume is difficult to measure — the spaces which form the petroleumscape are multi-layered or palimpsestic , sometimes thin and ephemeral, and mostly secured and disguised Hein, They are so omnipresent as to hardly be noticed and so obscured as to remain far out of mind.
To examine the volumetric sovereignty of the petroleumscape is to encounter a microcosm of the contradictory relations between water, oil and land—relations characterized throughout by the opposing properties of friction and malleability. Native northern European oil is found offshore. Sprawling North Sea agglomerations such as Ekofisk City are designed to force petroleum to flow from the sophisticated injection of high-pressure liquids into reservoirs deep under the seafloor, pressing hydrocarbons up to the preliminary processing stations on makeshift steel settlements high above the waves, to the pumping of oil through pipelines and into the global supply networks downstream.
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All of these actions require powerful machinery, complex infrastructure, multinational investments, purpose-built legal frameworks, and a constant workforce that circulates around the North Sea each person on rig tours of weeks. Jack-up accommodation rig, Haven, Couling.
The viscosity of atmospherically relevant organic particles | Nature Communications
Brent crude, one of the five major international oil benchmarks against which oil is evaluated and priced, is based on oil from the Brent, Forties, Oseberg and Ekofisk fields in the North Sea. It is a sweet, light crude with a dynamic viscosity of 16 mPa. Originally transported by ship, crude oil is now mostly delivered through pipelines that criss-cross the bed of the North Sea.
Compared to petroleum, water is fluid, but compared to freshwater, the sea is thick and viscous. We also sell the new EMS Viscometer , a high-tech electromagnetic spinning viscometer for tricky applications like adhesives, blood, and expensive perfumes. Isaac Newton, the man to discover this formula, thought that, at a given temperature and shear stress, the viscosity of a fluid would remain constant regardless of changes to the shear rate.
He was only partly right. A few fluids, such as water and honey, do behave this way. Most fluids, however, have viscosities that fluctuate depending on the shear rate. There are five types of non-Newtonian fluids: thixotropic, rheopectic, pseudoplastic, dilatant, and plastic.
Different considerations are required when measuring each of these fluid types. Viscosity measurements are used in the food industry to maximize production efficiency and cost effectiveness. It affects the rate at which a product travels through a pipe, how long it takes to set or dry, and the time it takes to dispense the fluid into packaging.
The production process has to be designed with the viscosity of the product in mind, making sure that pipes are angled to optimize flow, or that dispensers provide the right amount of force to induce flow, but not so much that the packaging will overfill. Viscosity is also a characteristic of the texture of food.
To choose the right viscosity for an adhesive, consider how the adhesive must flow, or not flow, on a part after the adhesive is applied. Low-viscosity adhesives will flow more readily than high-viscosity ones, so if you want an adhesive to stay exactly where you put it after dispensing — rather than spread out — a high-viscosity adhesive is ideal. Petroleum: Viscosity measurements project the effectiveness of lubricating oil and determines design elements of pipelines.